CEBELITARIK UNDER SURROUNDINGS
Gibraltar has been besieged 13 times throughout its history. The first siege in 1309 took place during the “re-conquest” of the Iberian peninsula by Christians. Spanish Alonso Perez de Guzman put an end to 600 years of Muslim rule in Gibraltar, which he bombed for a month. When no one wanted to settle in Gibraltar, the Castilian king Ferdinand IV enacted an interesting incentive law. Except for those who betrayed the king, he abolished the customs by promising thieves, murderers, women who escaped from their husbands, and fraudsters freedom even if they settled in Gibraltar and had death sentences for a year and a day.
Gibraltar later fell into the hands of the Catholic Spaniards while the Muslim principalities were fighting each other, and the Muslim Arabs when the Spaniards got into the throne fight. Finally, in 1501, after 15 months of the 9th siege, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Spain by Queen Isabel, until it was besieged for the 11th time in a new throne fight in Spain. Gibraltar was captured by the British in 1704 as a result of the intense shelling of the British and Dutch navy, which intervened in the throne war in Spain on behalf of the Habsburg dynasty. Declaring Gibraltar a free port a year later, the British gained an important advantage in the Mediterranean. The efforts of the Spaniards to recapture Gibraltar were inconclusive. On the contrary, with the Utrecht Treaty signed in 1713, this strategic peninsula was handed over to England “forever”. The “Great Siege”, which was started by the Spanish together with the French in 1779 and lasted for 4 years, also failed. In the meantime, the British developed a great defense superiority by drilling holes for weapons in the tunnels they dug into the mountain, and in 250 years, 55 km in Gibraltar. they dug a tunnel.